Mullen also gives a good timeline for discovery
of F H2O:
1901 Frederick McKay moved to Colorado Springs and noticed
“Colorado brown stain”.
1908 McKay wrote to G.V. Black about it,
invited out to CO, showed him some of 2,945 school aged children, 87.5% of whom had the stain.
1916 McKay and Black published findings,
including “this mottled condition, in itself, does not seem to increase the susceptibility of the teeth to decay”.
1928 McKay in an address to Chicago Dental
Society that the mottled enamel was often “free from caries” and had a “singular absence of decay”.
1931 McKay / Churchill / ALCOA labs found
high fluoride in a water supply that caused staining.
~1931 US Public Health Service assigned H. Trendley Dean to survey the nation’s
water supplies for high fluoride content to eliminate the staining.
“In his travels Dean became increasingly
intrigued by another of McKay’s earlier observations – that those people with the stain seemed to have fewer cavities
than normal. Within a couple of years Dean, working at times with McKay, compared levels of fluoride in the cities he had
surveyed and determined that drinking water containing one part fluoride per million did not cause staining. Dean turned to
several Illinois communities that had naturally fluoridated
water within the range of one part per million and began to study the incidence of cavities in children in those communities.
First he studied Galesburg and Monmouth, where the water was naturally fluoridated, comparing
them with Macomb and Quincy,
which had no fluorides in their water. From the dental histories of 885 children in the four towns, he discovered that children
in the unfluoridated communities had more than twice as many cavities.”
[A later study, in 1941, comparing children
about 13 years old] “showed that children who grew up drinking fluoridated water developed only about one-fourth
as many cavities as those who did not.” (My emphasis.)
Dean was first director of NIDR when it
was created in 1948. He died in Chicago in 1962. “Today,
except for a few people in dentistry and public health, they [Dean and McKay] are largely forgotten.”
“The drastic reduction of cavities
would seem to rank historically with the development of a polio vaccine as a medical achievement. Polio vaccinations and fluoridation
both became widely available in the 1950’s, and both showed immediate, verifiable, and stunning success. Jonas Salk
and Albert Sabin are justifiably revered names for their work in eliminating polio. But Frederick McKay and H. Trendley Dean,
the men most responsible for developing fluoridation, are virtually forgotten.”
Other great quotes from Mullen:
Nobody knows about fluoride:
“Tooth decay, as prevalent as it
is, probably is not a burning issue in anyone’s mind, except possibly dentists’. Nor, for that matter, is fluoridation.
In 1984 a national opinion survey revealed that only 2 percent of those Americans questioned mentioned fluoridation as an
important preventative for cavities.” (page 16)
Classic anti-F tactics – lots:
the record, anti-fluoridationists effectively fight for their cause by continually bringing up new alleged hazards from long-term
used of fluorides in water. Through the years anti-fluoridationists have accused fluoridation of causing cancer, heart disease,
bone brittleness, anemia, diabetes, strokes, infertility, stillbirths, mongolism, premature aging and even nymphomania.
These charges are usually thinly documented,
if at all, but it doesn’t really matter for the purposes of anti-fluoridationists. In an argument over the safety of
fluoridation, the burden of proof necessarily lies with the pro-fluoridationists. By the time pro-fluoridationists have refuted
claims that fluoridation causes heart disease, anti-fluoridationists are claiming it causes birth defects.”